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2021年英语专业八级真题听力 Mini-lecture(3)

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Although there is widespread public faith in the value of higher education, the progress of massifcation has been slow and uneven.

虽然公众普遍相信高等教育的价值,W彩票网江苏快3:但大众化的进程一直是缓慢而不均衡的。

And why is it slow and uneven?

为什么大众化的进程是缓慢而不均衡的?

Well, one, higher education did not admit significant numbers of racial and ethnic minorities until after the civil rights of the 1960s forced change.

首先,高等教育并没有接纳大量的种族和少数民族,直到20世纪60年代的民权迫使改变。

Second, despite significant expenditures on financial aid, minority and low income individuals are still less likely to attend college than whites or students from middle-and upper-income families.

其次,尽管在经济援助上有大量支出,但少数族裔和低收入个人上大学的可能性仍低于白人或来自中高收入家庭的学生。

Although access gaps have nowadays narrowed somewhat, large gaps remain between completion rates.

虽然现在入学差距有所缩小,但在学业完成率方面仍然存在很大的差距。

Low-income students come to college less prepared, and must balance academic demands with work and family responsibilities.

低收入家庭的学生上大学时准备不足,必须在学业需求与工作和家庭责任之间取得平衡。

Finding ways to increase the enrollment rates of low-income students and encourage their success once enrolled are two of the most important problems facing American higher education.

如何提高低收入家庭学生的入学率,鼓励他们在入学后取得成功,是美国高等教育面临的两个最重要的问题。

One of the challenges to meet these goals is that they can conflict with the other central tenets of American higher education.

实现这些目标的挑战之一是,它们可能与美国高等教育的其他核心原则相冲突。

That is market competition and resistance to government control, as I said before.

这就是市场竞争和对政府控制的抵制,就像我之前说的。

For example, institutional competition for the most academically talented students is likely to encourage increased use of tuition discounting for students who have no financial need,

例如,为争夺最有学术天赋的学生而进行的机构竞争,可能会鼓励更多地为没有经济需要的学生提供学费折扣,

and this could divert resources away from low-income students who need financial aid.

而这可能会把资源从需要经济援助的低收入学生身上转移出去。

Similarly, institutions may seek to distinguish themselves in the academic marketplace by becoming more selective in admissions decisions, thus reducing the number of low-income students admitted.

同样,大学可能会通过在录取决定上更加挑剔来寻求在学术市场中脱颖而出,从而减少低收入家庭学生的录取数量。

However, a primary role of government is to mediate the potentially negative effects of competition by insisting that institutions adhere to their missions and that institutions provide need-based financial assistance to students.

然而,政府的主要作用是调解竞争可能带来的负面影响,它要求各院校坚持自己的使命,并为学生提供基于需求的经济援助。

So a constant preoccupation of American higher education is this tension between the competitive, ambitious nature of institutions and the interests of government in promoting important public goals, primary among them broad access and widespread success for all students.

因此,美国高等教育一直关注的是学院竞争天性和野心与政府在促进重要公共目标方面的利益之间的紧张关系,这些公共目标最主要的是为所有学生提供广泛的机会和广泛的成功。

Okay. For today's lecture, we have briefly discussed some of the major challenges facing U.S. higher education,

好吧。 在今天的讲座中,我们简要讨论了美国高等教育面临的一些主要挑战,

such as the impact of the marketplace on institutions and the tension between competition and promoting public goals.

如市场对大学机构的影响,竞争和促进公共目标之间的紧张关系。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
widespread ['waidspred]

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adj. 分布(或散布)广的,普遍的

 
resistance [ri'zistəns]

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n. 抵抗力,反抗,反抗行动;阻力,电阻;反对

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negative ['negətiv]

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adj. 否定的,负的,消极的
n. 底片,负

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academic [.ækə'demik]

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adj. 学术的,学院的,理论的
n.

 
tension ['tenʃən]

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n. 紧张,拉力,张力,紧张状态,[电]电压

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selective [si'lektiv]

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adj. 选择的,选择性的

 
institutional [.insti'tju:ʃənəl]

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adj. 制度上的,惯例的,机构的

 
assistance [ə'sistəns]

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n. 帮助,援助

 
encourage [in'kʌridʒ]

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vt. 鼓励,促进,支持

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minority [mai'nɔ:riti]

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n. 少数,少数民族,未成年

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